“ FIT OF SPONSORSHIP AND ATTITUDE TOWARD SPORTS COMMERCIALIZA AS PREDICTORS OF ATTITUDE TOWARD SPONSORING COMPANIES“
By : Kimball J. Benson, Charles A. Lubbers, Kevin P. Gwinner
Tujuan : This quasi-experimental study tested the relationship between audience attitude toward sports commercialization and the resulting attitude toward sponsoring companies.
Variabel : In this study, the dependent variable was the resulting attitude of the participant toward the sponsor (Att2Spon) or sponsored team (Att2Team) following the reading of a fictional sponsorship. The principle independent variable in this study was the preexisting attitudes held by respondents towards the commercialization of sports (Att2Comm). Other independent variables were the existence of “bad” vs. “good” sponsorships (Type) as well as the strength of fit relationship between the sponsor and sponsored event (Fit) as described in the questionnaires used.
The following two hypotheses provide the framework for the study:
H1: When the sponsorship is perceived as “good,” those holding negative attitudes towards commercialization in sports will have higher resulting views of the sponsoring company or brand
than those with a more positive attitude toward commercialization in sports, thus resulting in a contrast effect.
H2: When the sponsorship is perceived as “bad,” those holding negative attitudes towards commercialization in sports will have lower resulting views of the sponsoring company or brand than those with a more positive attitude toward commercialization in sports.
H3: A good “fit” between the sponsor and sponsored event will result in participants having a higher resulting attitude towards the sponsor than in the case of a poor fit.
Sampel : This study involved 299 undergraduate students
Teknik Analisis : A variety of methods were tested to determine which analysis would provide the clearest picture of the interactions occurring among the variables. It was determined that a two-way ANOVA with three between-group factors using SAS statistical software would best illustrate the interactions.
Hasil : In summary, while no contrast effects were found, it was evident that a clear distinction between good and bad sponsorships exists in the minds of spectators and that when a sponsorship is done well, the resulting attitude of spectator towards the sponsor and the sponsored team can be greatly enhanced. Also, even though spectators with negative Att2Comm have lower resulting Att2Spon and Att2team a good sponsorship can be improved in the eyes of the negative when a good fit exists between the sponsor and sponsored team.
Kesimpulan : Companies spend millions of dollars to have their names associated with various sporting events. Such a large financial investment is making company management concerned that these practices are efficient in promoting company goods and services in the eyes of the sports spectator. While a context effect on Att2Comm was not found among participants in this study, certain basic principles of effective sponsorship were reinforced and are thus useful for potential sponsors and sporting teams to consider. One principle for both sponsors and teams to consider is the need for a good fit in sponsorship. A good fit can greatly enhance the effects of a good sponsorship for both company and team, especially among those spectators who may be against sponsorship in the first place.